Heavy oil or Residue conversion is one of the important processes in refining to get maximum profit margin. CSIR-IIP is working in this area since its inception. This area mainly is working in four different subarea-Delayed coking, Visbreaking, Fluid catalytic cracking and Residue hydroprocessing. Recently an indigenous technology called “Soaker internal visbreaking” has been commercialized in three Indian refineries- HPCL (Vizag), IOCL (Mathura) and IOCL (Haldia). This is an example of outcome from the research work in this area. Our main focus is not only industrial research work but also commercial implementation. Slurry Hydrocracking is the most upcoming process and we are working with BPCL, HPCL and EIL for development of a technology to convert the most contaminant feed to the valuable products.