25 September 2022 4:01 AM
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Innovative Technologies from CSIR-IIP

CSIR-IIP-Room Temperature Process for Bio-diesel production

The process is a low energy intensive method for making diesel alternate i.e. biodiesel.

The process involves transesterification of fatty acid triglycerides (having FFA up to 10%)   such as vegetable oil (edible / non-edible) with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters suitable for use as biodiesel.

This invention is carried out at ambient conditions i.e. at room temperature (5-40oC) and at atmospheric pressure with minimum consumption of energy in the form of heat and mechanical stirring. The Uniqueness of this process is that the reactions take place without or with only mild stirring for a very brief period.  As a result of which, the process is also very energy economic. 

 

Mobile Pyroformer for Turning Agricultural Waste into Energy and Fertilizer

The growing interest in biofuels from ligno-cellulosic feedstock can provide a path towards replacing petroleum-based fuels.

The sustainable biofuels are the potential alternative and lower the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Various feedstock and combinations of processes are used in a bio-refinery for the production of several products. India has agro based economy with huge source of biomass availability 670 million metric tons per annum covering agricultural residues in which 170 million metric tons of surplus biomass remaining un-utilised or burnt in open lands causing environmental problem. These residues can be a renewable carbon resource and can be converted to energy products, chemicals and bio fertilizer.

CSIR-IIP proposes to set-up mobile units to convert the agricultural wastes to bio oil and bio fertilizer

 

CSIR-IIP Technology for Bio-Aviation fuels

There is a great business opportunity for biofuels in the aviation sector. International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO), Carbon Offset and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) makes it mandatory for international aircraft operators to purchase the required offsets for the growth in CO2 emissions above 2020 levels.

To meet the demand for green fuels by International airlines (due to CORSIA), adequate availability and mechanisms for distribution for these fuels are required. India could become the only country in Asia capable of meeting the huge bio-jet fuel demand, thus making Indian airports an attractive hub for international airlines. It will increase air-traffic to India, create more jobs with a national manufacturing facility. On feedstock supply chain side more jobs will be created in rural, tribal areas due to farming and afforestation activities to grow oil-bearing plants and trees. It is expected to provide fuel security to nation and to Indian defense in particular.

CSIR-IIP has developed a single-step catalytic process, which is non-infringing, patented, uses a proprietary catalyst and can process wide-range of feedstocks (plant-derived non-edible, waste, low-cost oils) to produce drop-in biofuel for air and road transport purposes. In addition, our technology reduces the cost of production of bio-jet fuel, when compared to the competing 2-step technologies available from US and Europe.

 

Catalytic Process For Isomerisation of C7+ Hydrocarbon Streams

Reformer makes the one-third of the gasoline pool with 60 to 70 vol% of aromatic content to qualify high-octane quality for fuel applications. With the environment restrictions on fuel quality especially on aromatics encourage production of alternative hydrocarbons for filling the octane gap caused by less aromatics in gasoline, where, isomerization of C7+ branched paraffins emerge as a suitable solution.

Significance

  • Availability of high paraffin feed stocks (C7+)
  • Demand for branched paraffin’s in gasoline
  • Post reforming process to compliment octane gain
  • Value addition of aromatic precursors
  • Restriction on undesirable aromatics in gasoline

 

CSIR-IIP Technology for Up-gradation of Raw Biogas to Pipeline Quality Bio-Methane

Biogas is one of the renewable energy sources with favourable CO2 balance. It can be formed by biological transformation of large variety of organic wastes. It primarily consists of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The raw biogas is generally saturated with moisture (H2O). The typical compositional range of raw bio-gas depending on feedstock is CH4: 55-65%; CO2: 35-45%; H2S: 50-40000 ppm; Moisture (Saturated). The bio-gas needs to be upgraded to increase its calorific value (Bio-gas: 21.5 MJ/m3  vis a vis Natural gas: 35.8 MJ/m3) and also to remove toxic and corrosive H2S. The upgraded bio-gas can be used as fuel for gas-engines, boilers, fuel cells, vehicles etc.

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) has developed a Vacuum Swing Adsorption (VSA) based process for upgrading raw biogas to high purity bio methane which can be used as a replacement to natural gas for power generation, as piped natural gas equivalent fuel (bio PNG) for domestic and industrial heating or as compressed biogas for vehicular fuel application (CBG).

 

Technology for Converting Waste Plastics to value added products

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum (CSIR-IIP) in collaboration with GAIL (India) Ltd. had started the laboratory scale research work on valorization of waste plastics in 2006. The work involved screening/ development of catalysts and process for converting waste plastics from different sources into value added products.

CSIR-IIP has been successful in developing a novel process by which polyolefinic waste plastics like polyethylene and polypropylene can be converted exclusively into any one of the products, viz., gasoline or diesel or aromatics along with simultaneous production of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

The gasoline and diesel meet most of the BS IV/VI specifications while the petrochemicals are rich in toluene and xylenes.

The process comprises of pyrolysis followed by catalytic conversion and subsequent condensation and fractionation to get the desired liquid hydrocarbons. The uncondensed gases comprise mainly C1-C5 gases along with hydrogen.

 

Medical Grade Oxygen (MO2) Concentrator System for Hospital: Developed at CSIR-IIP

The pandemic has highlighted the need for distributed MO2 generation capability in India

CSIR-IIP has initiated the design and scale-up studies on Pressure/ Vacuum Swing Adsorption (PVSA) based MO2 plants

Based on these studies CSIR-IIP designed a demo plant producing 100 LPM of MO2.

The process has been rigorously tested with this plant in terms of process performance and plant reliability.

Suitable for 24/7 operation in hospitals

Scalable design: 100-500 LPM Plants

Can cater to the need of 10-50 critical patients simultaneously @ 10 LPM/patient

Deliver O2 at up to 5 barg pressure

Small footprint: 50-100 sq. ft.

Electricity consumption: ~1.2 kWh/Nm3 of MO2

Operating Cost for Medical Grade Oxygen: INR 13/CUM

(vis-à-vis the capped ex-factory cost of Medical Oxygen Cylinder at filler end at Rs. 25.71/CUM exclusive of GST)

Medical grade oxygen: 93±3% (Indian Pharmacopeia)

Demand 5-20 LPM/ patient (Depending upon the symptoms)

In-house generation at MO2 offers

  • independence from external suppliers
  • reduced difficulty of handling cylinders
  • avoidance of loss in Liq O2 supply chains


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